Preparation and Contingency Plan for the Exit of United Kingdom of the European Union

Tiago RodriguesUncategorized

BREXIT

in accordance with Article 50 (fifty article) of the Treaty on European Union, unless unforeseen changes are made, on March 29, 2019, at 11:00 pm in Lisbon, the United Kingdom will no longer be a member of the European union, becoming a third country.
We all know of the exit agreement, not accepted by the British Parliament and which can now be amended by this Parliament and subject to the unanimous approval of the 27 countries in the European Council, which is not very receptive to changes to the exit agreement.

This agreement provides for a transitional regime until December of two thousand and twenty.
In any case, with an agree or a non-agreement, there will come a day when the United Kingdom will be a third country for the other European countries as Portugal.
Here comes the Preparation Plan that has been designed by the European Community since 2017 and Contingency Plan that has been preparing since the end of 2018.
I recall the economic relevance of the United Kingdom in Europe, where it accounts for 15% (fifteen percent) of the European Gross Domestic Product.
It should also be noted that preparedness and contingency activities, as repeatedly emphasized by the European Union, should be the result of a joint effort involving the European at national, regional and local levels, as well as economic operators and citizens.
For true preparation and mitigation of impacts, all parties should assume their responsibilities.
The national measures of each country should be defined in coordination and complementarity with the European Commission and with the other Member States, with a view to maintaining unity at 27 and avoiding a dispersion of responses and consequent fragmentation of regimes.
At this stage, the European Commission recommends that Member States do not start bilateral negotiations with the United Kingdom.
Nothing in these measures should condition or anticipate those that will be approved, either within the framework of the future relationship of the United Kingdom with the European Union, or in that of Portugal with the United Kingdom.

Once the preparatory and contingency phases have been completed, the Portuguese Government will coordinate another exercise to identify issues and measures that will guarantee a future relationship, the longest and deepest possible, whose negotiation can only begin when the United Kingdom is effectively a ” third country “.[1]

PREPARATION PLAN
1) Preparation at European Union level
2) Preparation at national level

CONTINGENCY PLAN
1) Contingency plan at European Union level
2) Protection of citizens’ rights
2.1. Right of residence
2.2. Coordination of social security
2.3. Other matters relating to citizens
3) Economic Activity
3.1. Financial services
3.2. Air Transport
3.3. Road Transport
3.4. Maritime Transport and Ports
3.5. Customs and Export of Goods
3.6. Climate Policy
3.7. Tourism
3.8. Other Sectors

There are several lists published by the European Community on the proposal of initiatives, to be developed by the European Community, some of them already carried out:

1) List of contingency seminars organized by the European Commission
2) List of Notices published by the European Commission
3) Table of legislative proposals of the European Commission: proposals for regulations and decisions
4) Table of legislative proposals of the European Commission: proposals for implementing acts and delegated acts
5) List of proposals for legislative acts of the European Commission annexed to the Communication of the European Commission of 19 December 2018

Impact of Brexit in Portugal on citizens and economic activity

The number of Portuguese citizens currently residing in the United Kingdom is estimated at 400 000 and is the 9th foreign national in that country. The United Kingdom is the 8th country in the world where most Portuguese people live.

For its part, the British community residing in Portugal is composed of 22 431 individuals. It is the 6th largest group of foreigners living in our country (after Brazil, Cape Verde, Ukraine, Romania, China, having surpassed Angola), occupying the 3rd place in the communities of European origin and the 2nd between European Union countries.

The exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union would have inevitably, without exit agreement or without contingency measures in the case of an exit without agreement, a severe impact on the continuity of residence status, protection of social rights, access to healthcare, recognition of academic and professional qualifications, among others. This preparation and contingency plan provide for the timely adoption of all necessary measures to avoid such a scenario and to ensure that under no circumstances will citizens be prejudiced in their rights by Brexit.[1]

In economic matters
In economic matters, the importance of the United Kingdom as a trading partner of Portugal is unavoidable. The strong historical ties that unite the two countries contributed to the creation of a solid economic-commercial relation.Over the last few years, the United Kingdom has maintained a stable position as our 4th customer and 8th supplier of goods and has also taken on the role of trade in services as our first export market as a result of the exceptional performance of our tourism service industry (57.7% of the total in 2017). The value of Portuguese exports to the United Kingdom surpassed 8 billion euros in 2017 and the bilateral trade balance year after year shows positive figures, recently reaching a balance of more than 4.5 billion euros. In 2017, the United Kingdom’s weight in national exports amounted to around 9.6%, and more than 2 800 Portuguese companies, from the most varied sectors, sought out the one that is today the 7th market with the greatest number of national economic operators with sales of goods abroad – only surpassed by Spain, Angola, France, Switzerland, Germany and USA (AICEP, 2018).The importance of the United Kingdom as the country of origin and destination of foreign direct investment is also essential, totaling at the end of 2017 the accumulated (stock) direct investment between the two countries more than 3.4 billion euros in assets and 11 billion euros in liabilities, maintaining Portugal as a privileged destination of British FDI.
In the case of tourism, the importance of the United Kingdom market in the national economy (1.9 million guests and € 2 591 million in revenue generated by British tourists in 2017) is unequivocal, being the main market with 15.3% of the share in external demand and 17.1% of total revenues in 2017. For Portugal, it is therefore important to ensure conditions to maintain the flow of British tourists after Brexit.
Whatever the Brexit scenario may be, the consequences for the Portuguese national economy are inevitable – whether by the risk of economic slowdown or by the imposition of a readjustment of trade flows.
The Portuguese Business Confederation (CIP) carried out a study which concluded that, in the medium to long term, changing the relationship between the UK and the EU could result in potential reductions in national exports between 15% and 26% depending on the type of business relationship that may be established. Nevertheless, Brexit may generate new business opportunities for our companies.[2]

Summary table of national preparedness measures in Portugal
Area of Intervention, Measures to be taken and Governance Area involved

Citizens
Foreign Affairs
Accomplishment of 35 consular posts in 16 different destinations in the United Kingdom.
Information campaign for the British community resident in Portugal on the Right of Residence.
Internal Administration.
Information campaign addressed to citizens on applicable social security rules. Work, Solidarity and Social Security.
Affecting material and technological human resources in locations with relocated structures of the Aliens and Borders Service.
Strengthening of human and material resources at borders (airports and ports).
Notification and suspension of British citizens from the electoral rolls.
Higher education, Research and Innovation.
Science, Technology and Higher Education.
Reinforcement of the “Scientific Employment Stimulus Program” of the Foundation for Science and Technology, aimed at mobilizing the capacity to attract PhD researchers, mainly researchers at the beginning of their careers.
Strengthening of the “Chairs Program”.
Science and Technology Foundation to increase public and private funding in Portuguese higher education institutions for the hiring of high-level international teachers / researchers.
Strengthening of the “Study and Research in Portugal” initiative in order to attract foreign students to national higher education institutions. [3]

Business
Customs Training of customs services and sanitary and phytosanitary control, including the allocation of human and technological resources.
Regulators Coordination with the relevant regulators (Banco de Portugal, CMVM, Insurance Supervision Authority and Pension Funds, IMT, ANAC).

Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development
Providing information to SMEs in customs services on related to European Union exit from the United Kingdom.
Creation of a link in the Finance Portal with information content on the tax implications for national economic agents arising from the exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union[4].

Planning and Infrastructures
Foreign Affairs
Enterprises Information sessions with economic sectors that have not yet been covered by the AICEP seminars. [5]

Economy
Foreign Affairs
Publicity actions in the United Kingdom specialized press.
Second high-profile economic forum held in London.
Involvement of AICEP Export Stores as “Brexit service counters”.
Operationalization of the Contact Center and the Digital Assistance tool of AICEP to support and clarify the implementation of measures related to Brexit.
Consultations with business, commercial and industrial associations.
Disclosure of the support available to SMEs with commercial relations with the United Kingdom Economy through Support Centers of the IAPMEI.
Implementation by IAPMEI of mechanisms for dissemination of personalized information on digital platforms and clarification sessions.
Creation of a specific line of support for companies with exposure to Brexit with an overall amount of 50 million Euros.
Creation of a financial incentive to provide Portuguese companies with support in the elaboration of a diagnosis and in the definition of a plan of action to respond to the challenges and opportunities of Brexit.
Fisheries and Fisheries Row Creation of support service to clarify the doubts of businessmen, shipowners and fishermen.
Investment Attraction Creation of the “Brexit Balcony” in the Business Spaces in Portugal for United Kingdom companies wishing to relocate their headquarters or open a branch in Portugal.
Publication of a promotional supplement from Portugal with a view to attracting investment in the Financial Times.
The Article 123 A (artº 123.º-A, da Lei de Estrangeiros), permit the granting of a residence permit to directors or employees of companies established in the United Kingdom that establish their headquarters or principal place of business in Portugal, provided that they already have a residence permit or valid residence permit in the United Kingdom. [6]

Contingency measures

  • Contingency measures should not replicate the benefits of membership of the Union, nor the terms of any transitional period provided for in the Exit Agreement;
  • Contingency measures will generally be temporary;
  • Contingency measures will be taken unilaterally by the European Union, in the pursuit of its interests, be repealed at any time by the Union;
  • Contingency measures should be taken in accordance with the division of competences provided for in the Treaties and with the principle of subsidiarity in the European Union;
  • National contingency measures should be compatible with European Union law, including the Union’s international obligations;
  • Contingency measures will not compensate for delays that could have been avoided with the timely taking of stakeholder preparedness measures.

On 13 November 2018 the European Commission published a communication intituled: “Preparing for the withdraw of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 30 March 2019: A Contingency Action Plan.”
The European Commission also published on 19 December 2018 a Communication intituled: “Preparing for the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 30 March 2019: Implementing the Commission’s Contingency Action Plan.”
In its Communication of 19 December 2018, the European Commission announced the start of the implementation of its Contingency Action Plan for the Brexit scenario without an Exit Agreement. This Communication met the commitment of European Commission to propose by the end of 2018, all legislative proposals necessary for such scenario and to adopt all delegated acts.[8]

In terms of contingency, the following aspects have been identified:

2.1. Right of Residence

In Regarding the Right of residence, the European Commission invites the European Union Member states to take measures, in accordance with Union law, to ensure that all United Kingdom nationals legally residing in a Member State on 29.03.2019 continue to be considered as lawful residents of that Member State without interruption.
The European Commission considers that the periods of legal residence of British nationals in a 27 Member State of the European Union shall be considered as periods of legal residence within the meaning of the Directive.2003/109 / EC on the status of third-country nationals who are long-term residents.
In case the Withdraw Agreement doesn’t enter into force, there will be no transitional period whereby the right to acquire the residency status will apply to all UK nationals arriving in Portugal or can prove that they were resident in the United Kingdom. country until 03/29/2019.
All citizens of the United Kingdom and their family residing in Portugal on that date will have until 31.12.2020 to request the issuance of the new residence document.
The European Union also considers that European Member states should be prepared to issue residence permits to United Kingdom nationals concerned as proof of legal residence and right to work. Member States, those which host the largest number of such nationals, are invited to adopt a pragmatic approach, in accordance with Union law and issue temporary residence documents until final residence permits can be issued. In order to consider, the specific situations in each Member State, a number of technical options may be used, such as national legislative measures, the issue of temporary documents or the recognition of pre-existing documents.
Regarding the situation describe above the Portuguese Government considers the measure to be taken is the adoption of a legislative act falling within the remit of the Assembly of the Republic, of temporary validity (between 30.03.2019 and 31.12.2020), which enshrines the rights of British citizens.
The European Commission also supports the Member States in coordinating their actions in the fields of competence of Member States in order to ensure a coherent approach to the protection of citizens’ rights. Given the size of the administrative challenges facing national and local authorities, and to avoid administrative delays, the European Commission recommends that Member States accept that applications for residence permits be submitted before the date of departure from the United Kingdom.[9]

2.2 Social Security Coordination

In this respect, the European Commission recalled that the European Union has exclusive competence to coordinate social security in respect of periods and events or events occurring before the date of leaving the UK. On 20 December 2018, the European Commission presented a guidance note proposing a “unilateral coordinated approach to contingency” with a view to ensuring the widest possible protection of citizens exercising their right of free movement before the European Union.
The European Commission also invites the Member states to take account the periods regarding the work/insurance that occurred in the United Kingdom of the United Kingdom citizens and the nationals of the 27 European Union members, before the withdraw and the member-states to inform the citizens in order to keep the documentation which provided evidence of this periods.  The European Union also calls up to the member states to ensure the “aggregation” of periods completed until withdrawal also benefits those who continue to live in United Kingdom and the European member states should export old-age pensions to United Kingdom. These measures also apply to the citizens who continue to reside in United Kingdom after the withdrawal date.
As for the Portuguese Government, according to the Contingency Plans the measures to adopt in this situation is through the elaboration of guidelines to the national institutions of social security, after the withdraw date, about the continuation of the Regulations (EC) nº s 883/2004 e 987/2009, which lay down social security coordination regarding facts, events and periods of activity/insurance  accomplished/ occurrence until 29 March 2019.
As for the domain of health -care is to ensure the right to health care to citizens in cases stay or residence, as well reimbursement of the related expansive, in regarding pendant and future process.
In case of non – existence common approached of the European Union, after 29 March 2019 regarding the future between European Union and United Kingdom about health care refunds will be according to the Contingency Plan of withdraw of the United Kingdom from European Union dated 17 January 2019, apply the Convention between Portugal and United Kingdom lay down about Social Security of 1978, regulated on 31 December 1981 through administrative agreement and annex relative to medical treatment publish in Diário da República (Official Gazette) on 25 September 1982 in territory of United Kingdom and currently applied to Island Man, Jersey, Guernsey, Alderney, Herm and Jethou. [10]

2.3. Other matters relating to citizens
In regarding the recognition of the academic qualification according to the Contingency Plan of withdraw of the United Kingdom from European Union dated 17 January 2019 presented by the Portuguese Government, the academic qualification from United Kingdom will be ruled by the national European Union politics and norms, independent the place they obtain the academic qualifications.  As for recognition of the sectorial professional qualifications could be applied to the United Kingdom nationals the same procedure as third country nationals.

3.Economic activity
3.1. Financial Services
The European Commission has concluded that only a limited number of EU-level contingency measures are needed to safeguard financial stability in the European Union 27 and that there is no need for further action by Member States. To that end, the European Commission has adopted two implementing acts and two delegated regulations, which will enter into force on the date of United Kingdom exit, in the case of an exit without agreement.
As Legislative act the European Commission adopted a Commission Implementing Decision (EU) determining for a limited period that the regulatory framework for central counterparties in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is equivalent in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council [C (2018) 9139]. This Decision is a 12-month temporary and conditional equivalence decision in order to ensure that there will be no disruption in the central clearing of derivative instruments. This measure will enable the European Securities and Markets Authority Markets (‘ESMA’) temporarily recognize counterparties currently established in the United Kingdom, authorizing them Finance to continue to provide services in the Union. The European Commission has concluded that EU27 companies need this period to establish viable alternatives to UK operators.
The European Commission also adopted a European Commission Implementing Decision (EU) determining for a limited period that the regulatory framework applicable to central exchanges in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is equivalent in accordance with Regulation (EU) No 909/2014 of the European Parliament and of the Council [C (2018) 9138]. A decision of temporary and conditional equivalence, for 24 months, to ensure that there will be no disruption in the services provided by central securities depositories.
This decision will allow the latter to continue to provide Union operators with centralized registration and centralized registration system administration. In this way, operators in the EU27 who haven’t got any currently immediate alternative in EU27 may fulfill their obligations under European Union Law.
The European Commission also adopted a Delegated Regulation (EU) of the European Commission amending Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/2205, Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/592 and the Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/1178 and supplementing Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards regulatory technical standards on the clearing obligation in order to extend the deferred implementation dates of the obligation to offset certain OTC derivative contracts [C (2018) 9122]. These two delegated regulations which facilitates the fixed-term novation of certain over-the-counter derivative contracts with counterparties established in the United Kingdom to replace counterparties established in the Union. These acts allow such contracts to be transferred to counterparties in the EU27 by maintaining their exemption status, without being subject to the clearing and margining obligations imposed by the European Market Infrastructures (EMIR) Regulation. These contracts, prior to EMIR, are exempt from compliance with the requirements established by that regulation. These acts will prevent the Delegated Commission Regulation (EU) amending Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/2251 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the date by which CCPs may continue to apply their risk management procedures to certain OTC derivative contracts not cleared by a central counterparty (C (2018) 9118]. counterparty exemption.
In regarding this subject, the Portuguese government considers is necessary to safeguard the coordination with the relevant regulators (Banco de Portugal, CMVM, Insurance Supervision Authority and Pension Funds).[11]

3.2 Air Transport
In this area too, the European Commission has concluded that, given the nature of the subject matter, only contingency action at EU level is necessary and possible, with a view to ensuring the necessary legal framework to avoid an abrupt disruption of carriers. This measure, however, depends on reciprocity from the UK, which should confer equivalent air traffic rights.

In Regarding Air Transport, the Portuguese Government considers is necessary to safeguard the coordination with relevant regulators (Institute of Mobility and Transport – IMT and National Civil Aviation Agency – ANAC).[12]

3.3 Road Transport
In the case of an exit without agreement, land transport will be severely restricted and limited to the international quota system. It is therefore necessary to adopt a contingency measure at EU level.
European Union law has repealed the old bilateral agreements of the Member States which cannot be reconstituted. Thus, the European Commission has already adopted a legislative initiative to ensure a basic connectivity in land transport.
European Commission Regulation will temporarily secure the access of road to users who hold UK licenses to the carriage of goods by road between the United Kingdom and the EU-27.
In Regarding this situation, the Portuguese Government will adopt organizational measures and enforcement the staff of Instituto de Mobilidade e dos Transportes I. P. (Institute for Mobility and Transport) responsible for the application of the Regulation. [13]

3.4 Maritime Transport and Ports
In the case of departure without agreement, in maritime transport and ports, the same procedures will be applied as to goods from and to third countries, whereby ports may become bottlenecks for passenger and goods flows, thus harming current logistics chains.
Therefore, national ports may be affected, both in terms of the volume of goods handled and in terms of congestion in their outlets, in addition to the expectation of an increase in the costs of services.
As far as passenger transport and cruise activity are concerned, it will also be important to minimize the negative effects, in particular congestion in the flow of passengers.
In this area, some measures were already under way which were identified as necessary:

  1. Interoperability between Systems Customs and the Single Logistics Window;
  2. Extension of the statutes of temporary storage and customs warehouse to the logistic areas connected to the national commercial ports;
  3. Implementation of lists of passengers, crew and bond stores with new information requirements for dispatch in anticipation.

In regarding the Maritime Transport and Ports the Portuguese Government already taken several measures such as: speed up the creation of legal document regarding Dry harbor, interoperability between Custom system and Logistic single window, enlargement of the temporary storage statue and costume warehouse statute to the logistic areas of the Portuguese commercial ports , implementation of new requirements regarding list of passengers, crew man and bond stores for the anticipation dispatched and development of awareness actions with the actors involve. [14]

3.5 Customs and Exports of Goods
In case the withdraw agreement isn’t ratified trade between United Kingdom and European Union will be ruled under the Laws of the World Trade Organization.
In case the withdraw agreement isn’t ratified the United Kingdom will lose the Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) that European Union conclude with third countries which allows the European Union goods preference access to third countries markets.
In case the withdraw agreement isn’t ratified it will be applied European Union legislation on imported and exported goods which the collection of duties and taxes and the completion of the formalities and controls established in order to ensure a level playing field.
The exit of the United kingdom from the European Union will result in the automatic transfer from that country to a ‘third country’, so that the VAT treatment of operations between Portugal  and United Kingdom should comply with this classification, and it is not necessary to change the VAT (which results from transposition into the internal legal order of the VAT Directive), without prejudice to subsequent amendments to the VAT Code as a result of the changes promoted to the VAT Directive.
In customs matters, the automatic processing of the United Kingdom as a ‘third country’ is also verified on exit from the European Union, with its implications for imports and exports (with the need for operators to submit customs declarations import and export transactions with respect to these countries). However, since in this case we are faced with Community legislation resulting from European Regulation directly applicable to European Union Member States (in particular Regulation (EU) No 952/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 October 2013 , which establishes the Code Union Customs Union and Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2015/2447, laying down the Implementing Act of the Union Customs Code) any amendments which may be made to it at European level do not need to be transposed. In this respect, the European Commission is studying amendments to the Act of Implementation of the Union Customs Code (AE-CAU) on the models of guarantee terms and customs value, and the Delegated Act of the Customs Code Union (AD-CAU) in respect of minimum deadlines for submission of the entry summary declaration and pre-departure declarations.[15]

Member States shall take all necessary measures
The Member States shall take all necessary measures to ensure that they may apply from the date of exit the Union Customs Code and the rules on indirect taxation of all imports and exports to and from the United Kingdom.
Member States should make use of the possibilities for issuing authorizations for the application of facilitation measures provided for by the Union Customs Code.
In terms of custom control methods, the Portuguese Government will reinforce the means of custom control and inspection posts for sanitary control.
In according to the general guideline of the European Commission the TVA Directive will be amend in regarding the references of some British Overseas Territories.
The Portuguese Government during the transition period, in regarding the situations of the British Overseas Territories will be apply an updated interpretation to safeguard the situations regarding the territories referend above and eventual clarifications will be promoted by administrative orientation issue by the Autoridade Tributária e Aduaneira (Tax and Customs Authority).
In regarding that administrative orientation that should guarantee the clarification of doubts, namely, in reimbursements of TVA occurred outside the national territory as well the application “Mini One Stop Shop” regarding telecommunication, broadcasting or television or electronic services, issued by taxable people who aren’t establish or resident in European Union.
The European Commission will endeavor, on the basis of European Union veterinary legislation, to rapidly grant the status of “authorized third country” to the United Kingdom in order to allow live animals and animal products from the United Kingdom to enter the European Union United.[16]

3.6 Climate Policy (Emission Trade – ETS)

About Climate Policy, only the adoption of contingency actions at European Union level will be necessary and possible. Taking into account the need to ensure the correct operation of the Emissions Trading System (ETS), avoiding distortions.[17]

3.7 Tourism

In view of the importance of the tourism sector for the national economy, as well as the significant role of the UK as the issuing market, it is considered that measures should be taken at national level to maintain the current conditions that favor the flow of British tourists:

  • Waiver of visas for stays up to 90 days
    (negotiation of the amendment to the proposal for EU Regulation 539/2001, which proposes such a dispensation, already under way);
  • Use of dedicated airport areas / corridors, exploring the possibility of differential treatment for flights from the UK;
  • Possibility of mutual recognition of driving licenses;
  • Use of the national health service;
  • Validity of insurance contracts
  • Facilitated transport conditions for pets.
  • The same treatment for passenger safety charges.[18]

3.8 Culture
Ensure the maintenance of the rights of United Kingdom film producers in Portugal.[19]

3.9 Other Sectors
A delegated regulation of the European Commission on the inclusion of the United Kingdom in balance of payments statistics, international trade in services and foreign direct investment.[20]

[1]Information provided by the  “Medidas de Preparação e Plano de Contingência para a Saída do Reino Unido da União Europeia: Direitos dos Cidadãos” (Preparedness Measures and Contingency Plan of withdraw of the United Kingdom from European Union: Citizens’ Rights) dated 11 January 2019 – https://www.portugal.gov.pt/download-ficheiros/ficheiro.aspx?v=77ecb501-5938-411d-bc7c-dd1002a99945 and by the “Plano de Preparação e de Contigência para a Saída do Reino Unido da União Europeia” (Contingency Plan of withdraw of the United Kingdom from European Union) and by the “Plano de Preparação e de Contigência para a Saída do Reino Unido da União Europeia” (Contingency Plan of withdraw of the United Kingdom from European Union) dated 17 January 2019 – https://www.portugal.gov.pt/download-ficheiros/ficheiro.aspx?v=77ecb501-5938-411d-bc7c-dd1002a99945
[2]Infomation provided by the “Plano de Preparação e de Contingência para a Saída do Reino Unido da União Europeia” (Contingency Plan of withdraw of the United Kingdom from European Union) and by the “Plano de Preparação e de Contingência para a Saída do Reino Unido da União Europeia” (Contingency Plan of withdraw of the United Kingdom from European Union) dated 17 January 2019 – https://www.portugal.gov.pt/download-ficheiros/ficheiro.aspx?v=77ecb501-5938-411d-bc7c-dd1002a99945
[3] The same information provided by the footnote number 2
[4]The same information provided by the footnote number 2
[5] The same information provided by the footnote number 2
[6] The same information provided by the footnote number 2
[8] The same information provided by the footnote number 1 as well by  the  European Commission  communication intituled: “Preparing for the withdraw of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 30 March 2019: A Contingency Action Plan” , published on 13 November 2018 (https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52018DC0880) and  The European Commission Communication intituled: “Preparing for the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 30 March 2019: Implementing the Commission’s Contingency Action Plan” published on 19 December 2018 (https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX%3A52018DC0890)
[9] The same information provided by the footnote number 8
[10]The same information provided by the footnote number 2 and by The European Commission Communication intituled: “Preparing for the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union on 30 March 2019: Implementing the Commission’s Contingency Action Plan” published on 19 December 2018 (https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX%3A52018DC0890)
[11] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[12] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[13] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[14] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[15] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[16] Information provided by the footnote number 10
[17] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[18] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[19] Information provided by the footnote number 2
[20] Information provided by the footnote number 2

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